Section Summary 

Note:  these questions were not asked in the hearing due to time constraints.

Central to any system of bona fide due process and justice are laws where the meaning of words can be generally understood and agreed upon.

This series of questions revolves around the word “includes.”

This word is of particular importance because it is used in the IRS code in conjunction with lists of things that the tax applies to.

Unfortunately, the IRS has decided to establish their own interpretation of this word and therefore has jaundiced the interpretation of many critical portions of the IRS code.

Precise definitions of words such as “state”, “United States”, “employee” and “person” are required or else no substantive definition can be understood.  Meaningful definitions require both the inclusion and exclusion of meanings to avoid confusion.

Confusion is precisely what the IRS wants. 

The IRS generally contends that when the word “includes” is used to list or delineate things in the IRS code, these are merely examples of items in an endless group of things under their jurisdiction.

This aspect of statutory construction is not a minor issue in the law.  Due process requires that laws and key legal terms be unambiguous and precise in their meaning.  Laws that do not meet these standards cannot be legally enforced.

In fact, if the IRS’s position is taken literally, there are no limits to the government’s power because everything under the sun is “included”.  Clearly this is not the case.

IRS uses these word games to trick and deceive the masses into believing – and acting upon – the false belief that the income tax system has jurisdiction over places, things and People it does not have power over.

These false perceptions are not without their ill and wide-ranging effects on our Republic.  Because the People do not, and can not, know the precise meaning of words and phrases in the law, they fear the law.  They come to fear the government.

The government acts with impunity and enforces the “law” with threats of violence, incarceration and  property confiscation.  Due Process is denied.  Injustice prevails and the Government fails its first and primary duty: protect the rights of the People.