Section Summary:   

The IRS and the government in general, state loudly and publicly that it is the 16th Amendment that gives it the legal authority for the income tax.

During the mid-1980’s, two researchers, Red Beckman and Bill Benson, assembled irrefutable research consisting of thousands of pages of certified, notarized documents from the 48 states (at the time of the Amendment) that clearly prove the amendment was fraudulently ratified.

Although legal scholars concede that there were various punctuation and spelling errors, (and these alone require the voiding of an amendment vote) there has been little said publicly about the gross violations of law that occurred prior to the "official ratification" of the 16rh Amendment.

These serious violations include lack of proper notification and certification of the amendment votes by the states and significant violations of many states’ constitutions which legally void many states’ amendment votes.  In fact, if the states that voted for or had their votes improperly recorded were voided under the law, the 16th Amendment would have failed miserably.

The rules and processes for amending the Constitution are strict and formal.  Indeed, they must be to insure that the most important form of legislation our elected leaders undertake – amending our Constitution -- is carried out properly and lawfully.  

Incredibly, although the courts rule everyday on the constitutionality of Congressional legislation and acts of the Executive branch, the courts have ruled this particular issue a “political” question for the Congress, and have refused to directly rule on the issue of ratification fraud.  They even go as far as to penalize citizens who dare raise this “frivolous” issue in criminal or civil defense proceedings. 

We leave it to the American People to judge just how frivolous this matter is.

The current situation leaves the People with a Congress that refuses to address this issue, an Executive branch that will not hear debate on this issue, and the Courts, which refuse, to adjudicate the matter.  Is our Government telling us that because the courts might “offend” another branch of government, the People must forever live under unlawful legislation?

If the evidence presented is accurate, we have an Amendment to our Constitution which has not been properly ratified.  By definition, these violations of Article 5 of the Constitution make this Amendment void and it may be may be ignored by the People.          

This section of questions also delves into several constitutionally related issues such as, even if it were valid – does the 16th Amendment even apply to income taxes for the average citizen?

Please note the testimonial discussion describing the historical context of the Amendment process.  It is very clear that the Secretary of State in 1913 Philanderer Knox was a very powerful man of many financial and political connections. Few dared cross him. 

As you consider the nature of this evidence, please consider the theory that many states may have deliberately induced procedural flaws and other defects into their ratification documents as a way to effectively “scuttle” their “yes” votes so they could not be legally counted in the affirmative by Knox.  Unfortunately, as the ratification approval “window” began to close in 1913, Knox knew he would soon leave office, and he simply ignored these obvious and critical legal defects and proceeded to certify the amendment as “ratified” in violation of the law, his oath of office and the Constitution.  At this point, the states could not very well claim to disown their votes. 

The Government may never take power from the People unlawfully, no matter how long the People may take to challenge it.   Fraud in the passage of a Constitutional amendment can never be ignored by simply stating that it has become the “custom” of the People to pay an income tax.  

Knox may have bet the People would never research or be able to assemble all the detailed certified documentation he had under his control and responsibility to review as Secretary of the United States in 1913 required to reveal this fraud.   History will show Knox bet wrong.