Findings and Conclusions:

·        The Secretary of State in 1913, Philander Knox, in ignoring the obvious, and well documented procedural and substantive defects in the states’ legislative votes on the 16th Amendment, violated the law and the Constitution by fraudulently certifying the amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

·        The original constitutional clause in Article 1 section 9 clause 4 REQUIRES that all direct taxes be apportioned.  This clause has never been repealed.  The enforcement of laws based on the 16th Amendment can NOT conflict with this clause.  

·        Our laws must be unambiguous to have legal validity.  To tolerate otherwise is to deprive the People of the due process protections of the Constitution.

Bottom Line:  The government claims its sole authority for the income tax on the 16th Amendment.  It was fraudulently ratified.  All other discussions are secondary.